Great Britain is an island separated from the European mainland by the English Channel and North Sea. IIt comprises the nations of England, Scotland and Wales. Its long history is evident in prehistoric sites such as Neolithic Stonehenge, and medieval castles like those at Warwick, Dover and Caernarfon. Roman ruins include Hadrian’s Wall, which once divided Roman Britain from the northern Scottish lowlands.
England – birthplace of Shakespeare and The Beatles – is a country in the British Isles bordering Scotland and Wales. The capital, London, on the River Thames, is home of Parliament and the 11th-century Tower of London, but is also a multicultural, 21st-century hub for the arts and business in "The City."
Scotland, the U.K.’s northernmost country, is a land of mountain wildernesses such as the Cairngorms and Western Highlands, interspersed with glacial glens (valleys) and lochs (lakes). Its major cities are Edinburgh, the capital, loomed over by its iconic castle, and Glasgow, famed for its vibrant cultural scene.
Wales is a country in southwest Great Britain known for its rugged coastline, mountainous national parks, distinctive language and Celtic culture. Cardiff, the capital, is a refined coastal city with a nightlife scene and a medieval castle with ornate Gothic Revival interiors.